History

The Golden Conure is also known as the Queen of Bavaria’s Conure, and the Golden Parakeet. Until recently it was categorized as Aratinga guarouba but is now categorized as Guaruba guarouba. Although it has been considered endangered since the mid 1940s (Forshaw 379) it has never been formally studied as its range was considered to be so remote that it was out of harm’s way.

In early 1970s construction began on the Tucuruí dam, which on completion flooded 888 square miles of rain forests (Low 183). The construction of the dam further evoked the construction of 2 major highways and a proliferation of human colonization around its borders (WCD 4,5). Along the Transamazon highway the resettlement process consumed 100,675 hectares. Bordering another road that parallels the right side of the reservoir another 311,025 hectares were deforested for relocation of displaced forest colonists (WCD 32). Just these two areas of resettlement alone have depleted 411,700 hectares or 1,017,310 acres of rain forest.

Seventy one percent of the total deforestation occurring in Brazil since 1977 has taken place in the northeastern regions where the Golden Conures reside. All but 13% of that 71% has occurred since 1988. It has resulted in a total loss of more than 37 million acres of rain forests or 71/2 times the area covered by the state of New Jersey. Not only has this resulted in dramatic loss of rain forests, but it has also given easy access for trappers to a species that was once considered to be out of harm’s way. The Brazilian states of Maranhâo, Mato Grosso, Tocantins, and Pará have some of the highest concentrations of Golden Conures. As you can see from the chart below, they also have some of the heaviest concentrations of deforestation.

Brazilian State
77/88*
88/89
89/90
90/91
91/92
92/94**
94/95
95/96
96/97
Totals
Square Miles
Acre
620
540
550
380
400
482
1208
433
358
4,971
1,919.00
Amapa
60
130
250
410
36
0
9
0
18
913
353
Amazonas
1510
1180
520
980
799
370
2114
1023
589
9,085
3,507
Maranhao
2450
1420
1100
670
1135
372
1745
1061
409
10,362
4,000
Mato Grosso
5140
5960
4020
2840
4674
6220
10391
6543
5271
51,059
19,714
Para
6990
5750
4890
3780
3787
4284
7845
6135
4139
47,600
18,378
Rondonia
2340
1430
1670
1110
2265
2595
4730
2432
1986
20,558
7,937
Roraima
290
630
150
420
281
240
220
214
184
2,629
1,015
Tocantins
1650
730
580
440
409
333
797
320
273
5,532
2,136
Amazonia/Total
21050
17770
13730
11030
13786
14896
29059
18161
13227
152,709
58,961
 
*Average for Decade  
**Average for Period
Data is per km2

Satellite data supplied by the Brazilian Institute of Space Research. Satellite data DOES NOT include areas of deforestation less than 6 hectare (14.862 acres). Deforestation on this scale may be attributed to selective logging and forest settlements. It is estimated that forest colonists clear about 4 ha/year/family (1 ha=2.471 acres). 97/98 was estimated at a 27% increase over 96/97.

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